historical vocabulary

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Pytanie Odpowiedź
emancypacja, wyzwolenie (np. kobiet, niewolników)
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It granted property rights to peasants.
The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia was the first and most important of the liberal reforms enacted during the reign (1855–1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia. The reform effectively abolished serfdom throughout the Russian Empire.
czynnik, odczynnik
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a person or thing that produces a particular effect or change. An agent is also a chemical substance, organism, or natural force that produces a particular effect by its action.
Name four agents which contributed to the start of the battle. Many agents caused the spread of the epidemic in Europe. The teacher asked me to list five agents. He was the agent of their destruction.
okaz, osobnik, egzemplarz, próbka
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something shown or examined as an example; a typical example: epitome of
Museums will pay large amounts of money for good dinosaur fossil specimens. Astronauts brought back specimens of moon rock. He has a collection of rare insect specimens.
zwierzchnik feudalny
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a country that partly controls another country, or the ruler of such a country
As the Transvaal’s suzerain power, it would have been England’s duty to try to avert bloodshed. The Hapsburgs were suzerains of the country, but they treated the inhabitants as free men.
przezorny, roztropny, bprzewidujący
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providential, prudent
making arrangements for future needs, especially by saving money
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to cause a group to become part of or form a close relationship with another, usually larger, group, or organization:
You have to earn your affiliation in our club. Affiliation to this union means that you cannot conduct any business outside its boundaries.
wytapiać (wytapiać)
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to get a metal from rock by heating it to a very high temperature, or to melt objects made from metal in order to use the metal to make something new
przywłaszczenie; przyznanie, przeznaczenie (np. funduszy)
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the act of taking something for your own use, usually without permission
Imperialism is no less than occupation, appropriation and subjugation. In 2008 an appropriation of EUR 285 million will be made to the common foreign and security policy. The author objected to the appropriation of his story by an amateur filmmaker.
prowincja, dziura (mała miejscowość), stojąca woda
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a part of a river where the water does not flow: a place that does not change because it is not influenced by new ideas or events that happen in other places
He grew up in a rural backwater. We tied the boat up in a quiet backwater overnight.
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a law or rule made by a government or authority: City Ordinance 126 forbids the parking of cars in this area.
program partii politycznej
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political party program. a secret aim or reason for doing something:
She felt that some of the group had an agenda. There's no hidden agenda - I'm just trying to help.
prawomocność, moc prawną, zasadność, słuszność
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Some experts questioned the validity of the president’s ideas.
monarchia ludowa
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popular monarchy
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of a form of writing used for over 3,000 years until the 1st century BC in the ancient countries of Western Asia
Scholars were only just figuring out how to read cuneiform. Many of the early archaeologists were obsessed by the struggle to decipher cuneiform.
beneficjum (dożywotnie prawo do czerpania dochodów, związanych z piastowaniem danego urzędu kościelnego)
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burski, burowie
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the boer
the boer war
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a dark brown substance like soil that was formed by plants dying and becoming buried. It is sometimes added to ordinary garden soil to improve it and is sometimes used as fuel.
peat roofs on houses in Norway are a typical element of a local landscape which you may spot while touring the country.
samotniczy, pustelnik
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a person who lives alone and avoids going outside or talking to other people: He is a millionaire recluse who refuses to give interviews.
odciskać, wyciskać (odbicie); odbicie; zmusić do wojska
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The impress of ink was visible through the page. She impressed her hands on the sand. She's left an impress of her lips on my mirror. He has to hide because they want to impress him.
bić monety, mennica
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to produce something new, especially to invent a new phrase or word: something that is in mint condition looks or works almost like it is new:
We can't mint any more coins. The mint has released a set of special coins for this event. To get a good sale price, both the record and its cover should be in mint condition.
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a pointed tool for making small holes in wood or leather
Needles and awls were highly polished and frequently heat-treated for added strength.
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a part of a machine around which something turns, or a rod onto which thread is twisted when it is spun (= made by twisting)
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without someone's official permission to do something or be in a particular place:
Unauthorized personnel are not admitted beyond this point.

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